Information to help you during a medical emergency.

Please note:

These guidance notes are no substitute for thorough first aid knowledge.
First Aid International holds first aid courses throughout Great Britain and worldwide.

Advice on treatment

If you need help send for it immediately. If an ambulance is needed, arrangements should be made for it to be directed to the scene of the accident.

Scene Survey

Use the memory prompt SCENE to help ensure the scene is safe and that you are ready to provide first aid.

S - Stop
C - Check for Danger
E - Exposure Protection
N - No Obvious Risk
E - Establish Priorities

Treatment Position

Patients should be seated or lying down when being treated, as appropriate.

Note: Take care not to become a patient yourself while administrating first aid. Use protective clothing and equipment where necessary.

Burns and Scalds

Wash your hands if possible. Do not remove clothing sticking to the burns or scalds or burst blisters. All burns and scalds are to be treated with cold water for at least 10 minutes. When the burn is comfortable, a sterile dressing should be applied and the patient should be referred to hospital.

Chemical Burns

Avoid contaminating yourself with the chemical. Flush with plenty of clean cold water for at least 20 minutes. Remove any contaminating clothing which is stuck to the skin. Apply a sterile dressing to exposed, damaged skin and send to hospital.

Choking

Recognise choking. This may be mild or severe. For a mild obstruction, encourage the patient to cough to help relieve the obstruction. If the patient is responsive with a severe obstruction alternate with 5 back blows and 5 abdominal thrusts (chest thrusts in infants) until relieved. If the patient becomes unresponsive begin CPR at the chest compression stage.

Electric Shock

Do not touch the patient until the current is isolated. If the patient is not breathing normally, start resuscitation and continue until patient starts to breath normally and then treat any burn until the Emergency Services arrives.

Eye Injuries

Wash hands if possible. If it is a chemical in the eye, wash out the open eye continuously with clean water for as long as possible. Loose foreign bodies in the eye should be washed out with clean cold water. Should the foreign bodies still remain, cover the eye with a pad.

Heat Related Injuries

Remove the patient to a cooler environment and place them in a position of comfort. Give small amounts of cool water or isotonic drinks if the patient is responsive. Sponge with luke warm water. If the patient does not respond to rest and fluids or you suspect heat stroke, call the emergency services. Remove as much of the patients clothing as possible and wrap them in a wet sheet. Fan them vigorously and use cool packs under the arms and around the neck. Hose with cool water or immerse in cool water. Place in the recovery position if the patient becomes unresponsive and continue to cool until the emergency services arrive.

Minor Injuries

Patients with minor injuries of a sort they would attend to themselves if at home may wash their hands and apply a small sterilised dressing from the first aid box.

Seizures

Protect the patient from injury but do not agitate or restrain them. Protect the head and move objects away that may cause harm. DO NOT put anything in the patient’s mouth. After the seizure place the patient in the recovery position. Reassure the patient and allow them to sleep whilst waiting for the emergency services to arrive.

Severe Bleeding

Control by direct pressure (using fingers and thumbs) on the bleeding point. Apply a dressing. Raising the bleeding limb (unless it is broken) will help to reduce the flow of blood. It is advisable to wear protective gloves when applying first aid to a bleeding patient.

Shock

Help the patient into a lying position and loosen constricting clothing. Raise the patient’s legs if no injuries are present. Allow patients with breathing or heart problems to sit up in to a position of comfort. Do not allow patients to smoke, drink or eat. Suspected spinal injuries or fractures to the lower limbs should be treated in the position found.

Special Hazards

Use suitable protective equipment. Move casualty to fresh air. If breathing has stopped, start resuscitation and continue until patient starts to breath by themselves or until Emergency Services arrives. If poisons or gases are involved send details of the substance with the patient.

Suspected Broken Bones or Spinal Injuries

Do not move the patient unless they are in a position which exposes them to immediate danger. Obtain expert help, call for an ambulance.

First Aid Materials

Articles used from the first aid box should be replaced as soon as possible.

Record Keeping

An entry of each case dealt with must be made in the accident book.

 

CPR

Assure the scene is safe. Ask what has happened. Gently shake the shoulders or tap the patient. Ask loudly ‘Are you ok’ If no response, shout for help.

Open Airway (protect spine). Gently tilt the head and perform a chin lift to open the airway.

Check Breathing - Look, listen & feel for normal breathing for no more than 10 seconds (patient not breathing normally). Ask for someone to call 999/112 and bring an AED if available, pass on the patients condition and location. If you are alone use your mobile phone. If neither are possible you must go for help before commencing resuscitation.

Place hands in the centre of the patients chest. Perform 30 Chest Compressions. Rate of about 100 - 120 per minute. Compress sternum approx 5 - 6 cm. If the patient is a child or infant, compress the chest by one third of its depth. Use one hand for a child and two fingers for an infant.

Give 2 Rescue Breaths for 1 second each. Continue 30 compressions at a rate of about 100 - 120 per minute with 2 rescue breaths between each 30 compressions.

Continue resuscitation until qualified help arrives and takes over, the patient starts breathing normally, or the rescuer becomes exhausted. Stop to recheck the patient only If the patient starts breathing normally, otherwise do not interrupt resuscitation.

Patient Report Form

The Patient Report Form is a way of documenting your initial observations and management of a patient. It acts as a reference to anyone who is entitled to see that information should the need arise. One example of this is H.M. Coroner. It should be completed fully with as much detail as possible. It serves as proof of your actions and gives medical professionals an indication of the patient’s initial condition. A copy should be kept by your employer to be produced if necessary.

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